A Serbian living in USA Ratibor-Ray M. Junjevich, Ph. a clinical psychologist, has edited a two volume study Direct Psychotherapy : Twenty-eight American Originals (University of Miami Prejss 1973. pp. 951, $ 35.00). The methods of direct psychotherapy are mjanifold, yet all are characterized by handling the symptoms of neurotic or psichotic maldevelopments in straightforward ways. In this respect direct psychotherapy is diametrically opposed to Freudian methods of treatment, which are based on the presupposition that the patient can be freed of mental troubles only tafter long search for the alleged traumas of infancy and childhood. The direct psychotherapists reject Freudian psychoanalytic methods as devious, ineffective, and sometimens harmful. They also reject Freud's theoretical fantasies about the human psyche as supposedly driven by instincts of sexuality and aggressiveness, wich leave no place for the role of the spirit in personalities, free will and moral responsibility. Some of the contributors to Jurdjevich's volumes are of Jewish background, like Freud, which attests to the non-partisan nature of direct psychotherapy. Of course, the editor's Christian Orthodox beliefs have influenced the development of his approach to psychotherapy, and these methods can safely be used by Christians, which is not the case with Freudian pychoanalysis, which had incorporated the atheisic prejudices of its originator into its ideology.
Some of these direct psychotherapists express unhesitatingly their conviction that religion plays a vital role dn healthy psychological functioning ds well as recoveries from mental troules. The third volume, Direct Psichotherapy International Development is due to appear next year. Soon to appear is the first of the four volumes of An Integrated Anthology of Criticism, entitled The Hoax of Freudism: A Study of Brainwashing the American Professionals and Laymen. The other three volumes to follow are: Freud’s Phallic Cult: A Pseudoreligion Posing as Superior Psychology; Freud’s Non-science: Pitfalls in Clinical Practice and Thinking; Freud and Christ: Irreconcilable Adversaries.
A practical proof that Freudian „depth psychology" is irrelevant to psychological recovery is found in the fact that direct psychotherapists obtain as solid therapeutic results, and yet they have dispensed with Freudian theoretical reveries of Oedipus comlex, castration anxiety, bisexuality, anal and oral fixations, and other oddities of an overheated fantasy. Direct psychotherapists have dispensed with search for so-called »insights« about early traumas, and with Freudian overemphasis on the distant past and the »unconscious« promptings and conflicts. They consider Freudian search for connection between present maladjustments and the imagined childhood traumas as anti-therapeutic, leading the patient away from the actual problems and providing him with excuses of helplessness and inability to assume responsibility for his own person and condition.
A number of direct psychotherapists stresses the role of values, morality, and religious life in maintaining or regarding mental health and peace of mind. Scientistic attitudes and practice which may lead to dehumanization of both patients and therapists, are avoided.
The case histories supplied by writers alongside their theoretical cosidera- tions are moving and instructive.
The two volumes can be particularly useful to Christian priests and ministers, as well as counselors for laymen. Many individuals might be abe to correct the undesirable trends in their personalities by studying the principles of mental health and illness exposed in theise pages. The parents would be albe to orient themselves better to their responsibilities of raising children by becoming aware of the thinking of direct psychotherapists.