Based on little- studied archival material, this article focuses on the history of the Kyiv Theological Seminary in the Soviet period. It was opened in 1947 after J. Stalin changed his repressive policy towards the Orthodox Church in the Soviet Union. But the changes in state- church relations after the Second World War did not change the course of the USSR to build an atheistic society, so the seminary constantly faced obstacles to the development of theological education and spiritual formation of young believers. During N. Khrushchev’s rule, the government launched a new antireligious campaign, at the peak of which the seminary was closed in 1960. But, despite the short period of its existence after the revival, the Kyiv Theological Seminary became an important milestone in preserving and transmitting educational traditions from the pre-revolutionary Kyiv Theological Academy to the modern one.